• Nohr C, Björk G, Gustafsson BG (2009) A dynamic sea ice model based on the formation direction of leads. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 58 (1-2), 36-46, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2009.04.005.
  • Nohr C, Gustafsson BG (2009) Computation of energy for diapycnal mixing in the Baltic Sea due to internal wave drag acting on wind-driven barotropic currents, Oceanologia, 51(4), 461-494.


  • Björk G, Nohr C, Gustafsson BG, Lindberg AEB (2008) Ice dynamics in the Bothnian Bay as inferred from ADCP measurements. Tellus A, 60 (1), 178-188, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0870.2007.00282.x.


  • Stigebrandt A, Gustafsson BG (2007) Improvement of Baltic proper water quality using large-scale ecological engineering. Ambio, 36, 280-286, doi:10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[280:IOBPWQ]2.0.CO;2.
  • Vahtera E, Conley DJ, Gustafsson BG, Kuosa H, Pitkänen H, Savchuk OP, Tamminen T, Viitasalo M, Voss M, Wasmund N, Wulff F (2007) Internal ecosystem feedbacks enhance nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria blooms and complicate management in the Baltic Sea. Ambio, 36, 186-194, doi:10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[186:IEFENC]2.0.CO;2.


  • Erlandsson CP, Stigebrandt A (2006) Increased utility of the Secchi disk to assess eutrophication in coastal waters with freshwater runoff. J. Mar. Syst., 60, 19-26, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.12.001.
  • Erlandsson CP, Stigebrandt A, Arneborg L (2006) The sensitivity of minimum oxygen concentrations in a fjord to changes in biotic and abiotic external forcing. Limnol. Oceanogr., 51, 631-638.
  • Meier HEM, Feistel R, Piechura J, Arneborg L, Burchard H, Fiekas V, Golenko N, Kuzmina N, Mohrholz V, Nohr C, Vadim TP, Sellschopp J, Stips A, Zhurbas V (2006) Ventilation of the Baltic Sea deep water: A brief review of present knowledge from observations and models, Oceanologia, 48(S), 133-164.
  • Nerheim S, Stigebrandt A (2006) On the influence of buoyancy fluxes on wind drift currents. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 1591-1604, doi:10.1175/JPO2928.1.
  • Nerheim S, Stigebrandt A (2006) Horizontal dispersion in the sea caused by recurring changes of the depth of the wind drift. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L12608, doi:10.1029/2006GL026212.
  • Spokes L, Jickells T, Weston K, Gustafsson BG, Johnsson M, Liljebladh B, Conley D, Ambelas-Skjødth C, Brandt J, Carstensen J, Christiansen T, Frohn L, Geernaert G, Hertel O, Jensen B, Lundsgaard C, Markager S, Martinsen W, Møller B, Pedersen B, Sauerberg K, Sørensen LL, Hasager CC, Sempreviva AM, Pryor SC, Lund SW, Larsen S, Tjernström M, Svensson G, Zagar M (2006) MEAD: An interdisciplinary study of the marine effects of atmospheric deposition in the Kattegat. Environ. Pollut., 140(3), 453-462. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.08.010.


  • Anderson HC, Stigebrandt A (2005) Regulation of the Indonesian throughflow by baroclinic draining of the North Australian Basin. Deep-Sea Res. I, 52, 2214-2233. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2005.06.014.


  • Andersson HC, Veronis G (2004) Thermohaline circulation in a two-layer model with sloping boundaries and a mid-ocean ridge. Deep-Sea Res. I, 51, 93-106, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2003.09.011.
  • Arneborg L, Erlandsson CP, Liljebladh B, Stigebrandt A (2004) The rate of inflow and mixing during deepwater renewal in a sill fjord. Limnol. Oceanogr., 49, 768-777.
  • Arneborg L, Janzen C, Liljebladh B, Rippeth TP, Simpson JH, Stigebrandt A (2004) Spatial variability of diapycnal mixing and turbulent dissipation rates in a stagnant fjord basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 1679-1691, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(2004)034<1679:SVODMA>2.0.CO;2.
  • Carstensen J, Frohn LM, Hasager CB, Gustafsson BG (2004) Summer algal blooms in a coastal ecosystem: The role of atmospheric deposition versus entrainment fluxes. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 62, 595-608, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2004.09.026.
  • Green JAM, Molvaer J, Stigebrandt A (2004) Hydrographic response of Holandsfjord to changed freshwater runoff. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C07021, doi:10.1029/2004JC002295.
  • Gustafsson BG (2004) Sensitivity of the Baltic Sea salinity to large perturbations in climate. Clim. Res., 27(3), 237-251.
  • Omstedt A, Nohr C (2004) Calculating the water and heat balances of the Baltic Sea using ocean modelling and available meteorological, hydrological and ocean data. Tellus, 56A(4), 400-414, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0870.2004.00070.x.
  • Omstedt A, Nohr C (2004) The BALTEX/Bridge water budget and heat balances calculated from Baltic Sea modeling and available meteorological, hydrological and ocean data. Minutes of the 15th BALTEX Science Steering Group. Edited by Sigrid Meyer and Hans-Jörg Isemer. International BALTEX Secr., Publication No. 27,GKSS, Geestacht, Germany, 40-41.
  • Stigebrandt A, Aure J, Ervik A, Hansen PK (2004) Regulating the local environmental impact of intensive marine fish farming. III. A model for estimation of the holding capacity in the MOM system (Modelling – Ongrowing fish farm – Monitoring). Aquaculture, 234, 239-261, doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2003.11.029.


  • Arneborg L (2003) Turnover times for the waters above sill level in Gullmar Fjord. Cont. Shelf Res., 24, 443-460, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2003.12.005.
  • Green JAM, Stigebrandt A (2003) Statistical models and distributions of ocean current velocities with application to waste dispersion and the prediction of extreme events. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 58, 601-609, doi:10.1016/S0272-7714(03)00138-0.
  • Hasager CB, Carstensen J, Ellerman T, Gustafsson B, Hertel O, Johnsson M, Markager S, Skjødth C (2003) On extreme atmospheric and marine nitrogen fluxes and chlorophyll-a levels in the Kattegat Strait. Atmo. Chem. Phys., 3, 797-812.
  • Humborg C, Danielsson Å, Sjöberg B, Green M (2003) Nutrient land-sea fluxes in oligotrophic and pristine estuaries of the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 56, 781-793, doi:10.1016/S0272-7714(02)00290-1.
  • Lass HU, Prandke H, Liljebladh B (2003) Dissipation in the Baltic proper during winter stratification. J. Geophys. Res. 108(C6), 3138, doi:10.1029/2002JC001401.
  • Rasmussen B, Gustafsson BG, Stockenberg A, Ærtebjerg G (2003) Nutrient loads, advection and turnover at the entrance to the Baltic Sea. J. Marine Syst., 39, 43-56, doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(02)00246-4.
  • Rasmussen B, Gustafsson BG, Ærtebjerg G, Lundsgaard C (2003) Oxygen concentration and consumption at the entrance to the Baltic Sea from 1974 to 2000. J. Marine Syst., 42, 1-2, 13-30, doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(03)00062-9.
  • Rasmussen B, Gust afsson BG (2003) Computation of nutrient pools and fluxes at the entrance to the Baltic Sea, 1974-1999. Cont. Shelf Res., 23(5), 483-500, doi:10.1016/S0278-4343(02)00237-6.
  • Stigebrandt A (2003) Regulation of vertical stratification, length of stagnation periods and oxygen conditions in the deeper deepwater of the Baltic proper. Meereswiss. Ber., Warnemünde, 54, 69-80.
  • Stigebrandt A, Gustafsson B (2003) Response of the Baltic Sea to climate change -theory and observations. J. Sea Res., 49, 243-256, doi:10.1016/S1385-1101(03)00021-2.


  • Arneborg L (2002) Mixing efficiencies in patchy turbulence. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 1496-1506, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(2002)032<1496:MEIPT>2.0.CO;2.
  • Andersson HC (2002) Influence of long-term regional and large-scale atmospheric circulation on the Baltic sea level. Tellus, 54A, 76-88, doi:10.1034/j.1600-0870.2002.00288.x.
  • Green M, Stigebrandt S (2002) Instrument induced linear flow resistance in Öresund. Cont. Shelf Res., 22, 435-444, doi:10.1016/S0278-4343(01)00076-0.
  • Gustafsson BG, Westman P (2002) On the causes for salinity variations in the Baltic Sea during the last 8500 years. Paleoceanography, 17(3), 1040, doi:10.1029/2000PA000572.
  • Stigebrandt A, Lass HU, Liljebladh B, Alenius P, Piechura J, Hietala R, Beszczynska A (2002) DIAMIX-An experimental study of diapycnal deepwater mixing in the virtually tide-less Baltic Sea. Boreal Env. Res., 7(4), 363-369.
  • Strömberg J-O, Spicer JI, Liljebladh B, Thomasson MA (2002) Northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, come up to see the last eclipse of the millennium? J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 82, 919-920, doi:10.1017/S0025315402006367.


  • Arneborg L, Liljebladh B (2001) The internal seiches in Gullmar Fjord. Part I: Dynamics. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 2549-2566, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<2549:TISIGF>2.0.CO;2.
  • Arneborg L, Liljebladh B (2001) The internal seiches in Gullmar Fjord. Part II: Contribution to basin water mixing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 2567-2574, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<2567:TISIGF>2.0.CO;2.
  • Axell LB, Liungman O (2001) A one-equation turbulence model for geophysical applications: Comparison with data and the k-e model. En. Fluid Mech., 1, 71-106, doi:10.1023/A:1011560202388.
  • Björk G, Gustafsson BG, Stigebrandt A (2001) Upper layer circulation of the Nordic Seas as inferred from the spatial distribution of heat and freshwater content and potential energy. Polar Res., 20, 161-168, doi:10.1111/j.1751-8369.2001.tb00052.x.
  • Gustafsson BG (2001) Quantification of water, salt, oxygen and nutrient exchange of the Baltic Sea from observations in the Arkona Basin. Cont. Shelf Res., 21, 1485-1500, doi:10.1016/S0278-4343(01)00014-0.
  • Gustafsson BG, Andersson HC (2001) Modeling the exchange of the Baltic Sea from the meridional atmospheric pressure difference across the North Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 106(C9), 19, 731-19,744.
  • Gustafsson KE (2001) Computations of the energy flux to mixing processes via baroclinic wave drag on barotropic tides. Deep-Sea Res. I, 48, 2283-2295, doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(01)00008-5.
  • Hansen PK, Ervik A, Schaaning M, Johannessen P, Aure J, Jahnsen T, Stigebrandt A (2001) Regulating the local environmental impact of intensive marine fish farming. II. The monitoring programme of the MOM system (Monitoring-Ongrowing fish farms – Modelling). Aquaculture, 194, 75-92, doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00520-2.
  • Liljebladh B, Thomasson M (2000) Krill behavior as recorded by acoustic doppler current profilers in the Gullmarsfjord. J. Mar. Systems 27, 301-313, doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(00)00075-0.
  • Raschke E, Meywerk J, Warrach K, Andrea U, Bergström S, Beyrich F, Bosveld F, Bumke K, Fortelius C, Graham LP, Gryning S-E, Halldin S, Hasse L, Heikinheimo M, Isemer H-J, Jacob D, Jauja I, Karlsson K-G, Keevallik S, Koistinen J, van Lammeren A, Lass U, Launianen J, Lehmann A, Liljebladh B, Lobmeyr M, Matthäus W, Mengelkamp T, Michelson DB, Napiórkowski J, Omstedt A, Piechura J, Rockel B, Rubel F, Ruprecht E, Smedman A-S, Stigebrandt A (2001) The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX): A European Contribution to the Investigation of the Energy and Water Cycle over a Large Drainage Basin. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 2389-2413, doi:10.1175/1520-0477(2001)082<2389:TBSEBA>2.3.CO;2.
  • Wulff F, Bonsdorff E, Gren I-M, Johansson S, Stigebrandt A (2001) Giving advice on cost-effective measures for a cleaner Baltic Sea: A challenge for science. Ambio, 30, 254-259.


  • Gustafsson BG (2000) Time-dependent modeling of the Baltic Entrance Area. Part 1: Quantification of circulation and residence times in the Kattegat and the straits of the Baltic sill. Estuar. Coast, 23, 231-252, doi:10.2307/1352830.
  • Gustafsson BG (2000) Time-dependent modeling of the Baltic Entrance Area. Part 2: Water and salt exchange of the Baltic Sea. Estuar. Coast, 23, 253-266, doi:10.2307/1352831.
  • Omstedt A, Gustafsson B, Rodhe J, Walin G (2000) Use of Baltic Sea modelling to investigate the water and heat cycles in GCM and regional climate models. Clim. Res., 15, 95-108.


  • Eilola K, Stigebrandt A (1999) On the seasonal nitrogen dynamics of the Baltic proper biogeochemical reactor. J. Mar. Res., 57, 693-713, doi:10.1357/002224099321549648.
  • Gustafsson B (1999) High frequency variability of the surface layers in the Skagerrak during SKAGEX. Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 8, 1021-1047, 10.1016/S0278-4343(99)00008-4.
  • Stigebrandt A (1999) Resistance to barotropic tidal flow in straits by baroclinic wave drag. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29,191-197, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1999)029<0191:RTBTFI>2.0.CO;2.


  • Axell LB (1998) On the variability of Baltic Sea deepwater mixing. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 21667-21682.
  • Carlsson M (1998) A coupled three-basin sea level model for the Baltic Sea. Cont. Shelf Res., 18, 1015-1038, doi:10.1016/S0278-4343(98)00025-9.
  • Carlsson M (1998) The mean sea-level topography in the Baltic Sea determined by oceanographic methods. Mar. Geod.,21, 203-217, doi:10.1080/01490419809388136.
  • Eilola K, Stigebrandt A (1998) Spreading of juvenile freshwater in the Baltic proper. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 27795-27807.
  • Lilover M-J, Lips U, Laanearu J, Liljebladh B (1998) Flow regime in the Irbe Strait. Aquat. Sci., 60, 253-265, doi:10.1007/s000270050040.
  • Omstedt A, Axell LB (1998) Modeling the seasonal, interannual and long-term variations of salinity and temperature in the Baltic proper. Tellus, 50A, 637-652, doi:10.1034/j.1600-0870.1998.t01-4-00005.x.


  • Aure J, Molvær J, Stigebrandt A (1997) Observations of inshore water exchange forced by a fluctuating offshore density field. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 33, 112-119, doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(97)00005-2.
  • Eilola K (1997) The development of a spring thermocline at temperatures below the temperature of maximum density with application to the Baltic Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 8657-8662.
  • Ervik A, Kupka-Hansen P, Aure J, Stigebrandt A, Johannessen P, Jahnsen T (1997) Regulating the local environmental impact of intensive marine fish farming. I. The concept of the MOM system (Modelling-Ongrowing fish farms-Monitoring). Aquaculture, 158, 85-94, doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(97)00186-5.
  • Gustafsson B (1997) Interaction between Baltic Sea and North Sea. Ocean Dynam. (Deutsche Hydr. Zeitschrift), 49, 165-184, doi:10.1007/BF02764031.
  • Parsmar R, Stigebrandt A (1997) Observed damping of barotropic seiches through baroclinic wave drag in the Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 849-857, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<0849:ODOBST>2.0.CO;2.


  • Engqvist A (1996) Self-similar multi-layer exchange flow through a contraction. J. Fluid Mech., 328, 49-66, doi:10.1017/S0022112096008646.
  • Engqvist A (1996) Long-term nutrient balances in the eutrophication of the Himmerfjärd estuary. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 42, 483-507, doi:10.1006/ecss.1996.0031.
  • Gustafsson B, Stigebrandt A (1996) Dynamics of the freshwater-influenced surface layers in the Skagerrak. J. Sea Res., 35, 39-53, doi:10.1016/S1385-1101(96)90733-9.
  • Haamer J (1996) Improving water quality in a eutrophied fjord system with mussel farming. Ambio, 25, 356-362.
  • Liljebladh B, Stigebrandt A (1996) Observations of the deepwater flow into the Baltic Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 8895-8912.
  • Mattsson J (1996) Some comments on the barotropic flow through the Danish Straits and the division of the flow between the Belt Sea and the Öresund. Tellus, 48A, 456-464, doi:10.1034/j.1600-0870.1996.t01-2-00007.x.
  • Mattsson J (1996) Analysis of the exchange of salt between the Baltic and the Kattegat through Öresund using a three-layer model. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 16571-16584.
  • Samuelsson M (1996) Interannual salinity variations in the Baltic Sea during the period 1954-1990. Cont. Shelf Res., 16, 1463-1477, doi:10.1016/0278-4343(95)00082-8.
  • Samuelsson M, Stigebrandt A (1996) Main characteristics of the long-term sea level variability in the Baltic Sea. Tellus, 48A, 672-683, doi:10.1034/j.1600-0870.1996.t01-4-00006.x.
  • Stigebrandt A, Aure J, Molvær J (1996) Oxygen budget methods to determine the vertical flux of particulate organic matter with application to the coastal waters off western Scandinavia. Deep-Sea Res. II, 43, 7-21, doi:10.1016/0967-0645(95)00077-1.
  • Stigebrandt A, Djurfeldt L (1996) Control of the production of organic matter in the ocean on short and long terms by stratification and remineralization. Deep-Sea Res. II, 43, 23-35, doi:10.1016/0967-0645(95)00087-9.
  • Stigebrandt A, Molvær J (1996) Evidence for hydraulically controlled outflow of brackish water from Holandsfjord, Norway. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 257-266, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1996)026<0257:EFHCOO>2.0.CO;2.


  • Haamer J (1995) Presence of phycotoxin ocadaic acid in mussels (Mytilus Edulis) in relation to nutrient composition in Swedish coastal water. J. Shellfish Res., 14, 209-216.
  • Mattsson J (1995) Observed linear flow resistance in the Öresund due to rotation. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 20779-20791.